Thus, we might assume that Lully's use of it reflects a conservative aspect of his work. In the analyses here, I have in most instances understood the entire piece as a prolonged theme. Since the distinction is based on length, however, that is not entirely satisfactory as a method. Nevertheless, we can learn enough about these pieces to say that an antecedent-continuation design prevails, though often as antecedent-continuation 1-continuation 2. Thanks to text repetition and rhyme, this sung menuet from Atys provides the clearest example: a six-bar antecedent followed by two six-bar continuation phrases.
The tension one feels between theme, small form, and compound theme appears to be more acute in the s than it does a century later. Labels: Armide , Atys , Lully , Prosperine , six-bar phrases or themes , three-bar ideas. Sunday, June 12, Mozart's menuets and Caplin's theme types, part 3. Ironically, perhaps, the presentation-consequent theme class shares an important characteristic with the sentence.
The presentation-consequent theme shows a dogged adherence to one idea, which is heard three times, then followed by a cadence. Here is an example from K. Labels: Caplin , menuet , Mozart , theme types. Saturday, June 11, Mozart menuets and Caplin's theme types, part 2.
This is a follow-up to yesterday's post that provided stats for theme types in the first strains of one early set of menuets K. Caplin's seven classes of eight-bar themes are as follows: c1.
Only three from all possible combinations of the four-bar units are missing: 1. To be honest I think that for dance music those themes whose identity depends on particular harmonic shapes do not have anything like the importance that they can have for larger-scale instrumental concert music. For that reason, I would be content with just four classes: c1. Evaluating such differences can be useful as an interpretive tool.
Here are examples from K. In the trio of n2, we see the "classic" sentence design, where a basic idea is clearly repeated, though varied by transposition, and the continuation is built on fragmentation of the head-motive of the basic idea. A formula cadence then ends. Labels: Caplin , menuet , Mozart. Friday, June 10, Mozart, 6 Menuets, K.
The traditional narrative has the period theme dominating the Classical era that is, European music roughly but by the end of that time giving way to the sentence Schoenberg's term : the preference for symmetry somehow turned to a preference for organic development. By now, we know well that this historical model misrepresents much of the music of this era. It certainly misrepresents music for dance. My claim is that a variety of thematic types was typical of the 17th century and early 18th, as well, but gradually gave way to the symmetrical design of the period by the s because of the popularity of the contredanse, which was based on music for the gavotte duple time and gigue triple.
Through most of the century, however, the menuet was prominent in maintaining one of the earlier theme types, the antecedent-continuation design one of William Caplin's "hybrids". The goal of my new research is to gain a better picture of just how thoroughly—and during which decades—this design was important. Mozart provides a particularly good case study, as he was an avid dancer himself and therefore knew intimately the requirements and changing fashions of dance , and he was also a prolific composer of music for dancing from an early age into the last year of his life, when he held a position as composer of dance music for the Imperial court.
The six orchestral menuets of K. The scoring is for two violin parts and bass, augmented by trumpet and 2 oboes or, sometimes, a solo flute.
The designs for the first strain of each menuet and its trio are listed below. So much for the narrative that says the sentence arises with Beethoven. In fact, it would seem to be just common sense that the sentence should be well suited to 18th century motive-driven Italianate models of composition and improvisation. Here are the stats for K. Eleven of these themes are periods, only five are sentences, but eight are antecedent-continuation hybrids. For the late menuets, then, periods do outnumber any other type, but constitute only about half of the total, with antecedent-continuation hybrids significantly represented and sentences by no means missing.
In the next post, I will discuss some examples of the antecedent-continuation hybrid from these three sets of menuets. Links updated. Besides, I think on closer examination that this composition can even be omitted with justification, and in its stead any little song can be played; because it seems to me that a musical piece in which the actress shows herself off as a keyboard player is not right for this scene, as the attention of the spectator is in suspense over the outcome of the play.
In addition, I ask you quite sincerely in the future not to believe everything that is said of me and about me.
His commission to compose the Requiem may have come around this same time as well, although the date of that commission is uncertain. His comedy Der Faschings-Dienstag Shrove Tuesday seems to have been intended for the holiday: it was premiered on Tue, 8 Mar —which was Faschingsdienstag that year—and performed just one more time a few days later, on 13 Mar.
Naturally, Karl and Charlotte attempt to continue seeing one another in secret. The reference to a Mozart sonata comes in Act 5, scene 2.
Karl and Charlotte have arranged for him to visit her at home at a time when she believes her father will be dining out with a friend. When she feigns not to know which sonata he means, he replies:.
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The one by Mozart that I like so much. She begins to play. While Charlotte is playing, or perhaps just after she finishes the stage direction is vague on the timing , Karl opens the closet door—and is immediately seen by Mileck, who is seated facing the door. Uproar ensues. In The Busie Body , the analogous scene takes place relatively early in Act 4, well before the denouement in Act 5.
Karl Werner Dokumente , —86; the identification of Werner is from Dokumente. Preisler writes:. Sunday, 24 August. I experienced the happiest hour of music.
This little man and. Pedal-Keyboard , so wonderfully! I was. Along with this high-profile commission with its looming deadline, Mozart had other pressing work to do as well.
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Thus Mozart had a precise deadline for this commission as well, albeit one that was not as pressing as the one for Tito. The primary documents on the commissioning, composition, and completion of the Requiem—most dating from long after the fact—are in Wolff , ff; see also our entry for 27 Dec With these caveats in mind, only four known keyboard pieces by Mozart could fit the required chronology: the variations K.
Can stir up the very most heat in the world. No autograph is known to survive for K. Artaria, first advertisement for. WZ , no. In other words, it would potentially have been confusing for the audience if Mileck asked Charlotte to play a piece by Mozart, and she began to play something the audience had never heard before.
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Artaria , title page. Although it may simply be coincidence, Viennese copyist Laurenz Lausch first advertised manuscript copies of K. Lausch, advertisement for. If the letter dates from after the completion of K.
Related Six Menuette, K599
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